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Author instructions : [PDF]

Authors must complete and submit the Checklist for reparation of Manuscripts and Illustrations : [PDF] before publication.

Please sign and send this form to:


LANKESTERIANA is a peer-reviewed journal. Each manuscript will be critically evaluated by two or more external reviewers.

Please read carefully the following Instructions and check the appropriate items to be sure your manuscript is formatted according to the journal style. Manuscripts that do not conform to the Instructions, both in format and contents, will be sent back to the authors for formatting prior to the reviewing process. This would represent a significant delay in the times required to eventually publish your manuscript.


General Instructions

• Type manuscript in Word (or Word compatible word processor) on 8.5" by 11" document with at least 1" (2.5 cm) margin on all sides.
• Use Times New Roman 12- point type, double-space throughout, including tables, figure legends, and literature cited. Do not justify the right margin. Authors are responsible for diacritical marks.
• Assemble in this order: 1) Title, Author(s) and affiliation(s) page; 2) abstract [+ optional abstract in the second language], key words and running title page; 3) Text, 4) Acknowledgments, 5) Literature cited, 6) Tables, 7) Appendices, 8) Figure legends, 9) Figures.
• Authors not fluent in written English should have their manuscripts checked carefully for correct language use before submission.
• If the paper includes newly described taxa, they must be illustrated, preferably by line drawings.
• Include the collect permits and the corresponding institution that granted it in the cases of newly described taxa.

Title, Running title, Addresses, Abstract [+ optional Abstract in second language] & Keywords

• Title is flush left, in upper and lower case letters.
• Below Title, author(s) name(s) are on one line, flush left, in upper and lower case letters. Author(s) name(s) are in the following order: First Name (complete spelling), Second Name (initial), Surname. Indicate by superscript number after author's name any current address. Addresses include Institution, Street, City, State, Postal Code, Country. Indicate with asterisk (*) the name of the correspondent author; indicate with asterisk, after the addresses, the email of the correspondent author, to whom reprints should be sent.
• Abstract begin on new page, is flush left, in upper and lower case letters. Abstract must be one paragraph and not indented. Do not cite references or use abbreviations in the abstract. Abstract is intended for quick understanding of the article content, and must include short but full reference to paper results. In the case of newly described taxa, diagnostic characters must be shortly stated.
• Optional abstract in a second language should follow in separate paragraph in same format. No translation services are provided by the editorial staff.
• Key Words: give up to 6 keywords arranged alphabetically, preceding text as follows: Key Words: …
• Below Key Words, Running title is on one line, flush left, in upper and lower case letters. The running title includes the author(s) surname(s) and a short title. Total number of characters must not exceed 50.

Text ...................... TOP

• Begin on new page.
• Main headings are flush left in upper and lower case letters and in boldface on a separate line. Secondary headings are flush left in upper and lower case letters and in italics, followed by a period, dash, and the paragraph text. Tertiary headings are flush left in upper and lower case letters and underlined, followed by a period, dash, and the paragraph text.
• All figures and tables must be cited in the text and must be cited consecutively in numerical order.
• Each reference cited in the text must be in the Literature Cited section, and vice versa.
• Cite literature in the text as follows:
1. One author: Nobody (1991) or (Nobody 1991)
2. Two authors: Nobody and Somebody (1991) or (Nobody & Somebody 1991)
3. More than two authors: The first time you cite it: Nobody, Somebody & Someother (1991) or (Nobody, Somebody & Someother 1991). Subsequent citations: Nobody et al. (1991) or (Nobody et al. 1991).
4. More than six authors: Nobody et al. (1991) or (Nobody et al. 1991)
5. Manuscripts accepted for publication but not yet published: Nobody (in press) or (Nobody in press)
6. Unpublished materials: S. Nobody (unpubl. data) or (S. Nobody pers. comm. YEAR)
7. Within parentheses, use a comma to separate different citations (Nobody 1991, Somebody 1991), citations should be listed in the order they appear in the reference list (alphabetically, then chronologically).
8. Use a, b, c, and so forth, for two or more papers by same author(s) in one year (e.g., Nobody 1990a,b, Boom 1985b).
• Cite authors of all names at rank of genus and below where first used in text. Do not repeat author citations after the first name’s use. Refer to Authors of Plant Names (Brummitt & Powell 1992) for correct abbreviations.
• Italicize all scientific names at the generic level or below.
• Spell out genus and species the first time used in a paragraph and abbreviate generic name by first initial thereafter in that paragraph. Do not abbreviate genus name at the beginning of a sentence.
• Use Index Herbariorum (Regnum Veg. Vol. 120. 1990; abbreviations to designate herbaria. It is not necessary to cite this publication.
• Do not use footnotes.
• Numbers. Write out one through nine, unless a measurement or in a description. Use comma with more than four digits (1000 but 10,000); 0.5 instead of .5; “%” instead of “percent”. Use 8.0–8.5 and not 8–8.5.
• Abbreviate units of measurements without a period, e.g., km, mm, ft, mi, and so forth; temperatures are as follows: 20°C.
• Write out other abbreviations the first time used in the text and abbreviate thereafter: "Trichome morphology was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM)."
• If keys are included, they should be dichotomous and indented. Couplets should be numbered, not lettered, and the numbers followed by periods. Authors of taxa are not included and species are not numbered in the key.
• Specimen citation should include: locality, latitude and longitude when available, elevation, collection date, collector (“et al.” when more than two), collector’s number, and herbarium(a) of deposit (using abbreviations in Index Herbariorum). Countries are cited from north to south; political subdivisions are in alphabetical order within countries; collectors are in alphabetical order within subdivisions.
• Acknowledgments should be brief and to the point.

Literature Cited ...................... TOP

• Use hanging indentation.
• Continue page number sequence.
• “In press” citations must have been accepted for publication; give name of journal (and volume number if known) or publisher.
• Insert a space after each initial of an author's name.
• Insert the year of the publication in parenthesis.
• Do not abbreviate journal names.
• Titles of books are written in lower case except the first word and proper nouns and as required in original language of titles.
• Italicize title of journal and book titles.
• Italicize scientific names in the title of articles.
• Cite literature as follows:
1. One author: Nobody, A. B. (1991).
2. Two authors:Nobody, A. B. & Somebody, C. D. (1991).
3. More than two authors: Nobody, A. B., Somebody, C. D. & Someother, E. F. (1991).
4. Book chapter: Nobody, A. B. (1991). The effect of light on growth. In: C. D. Somebody (Ed.), Light and growth (pp. 209-291). London: Light Press. – or - Nobody, A. B. (1991). The effect of light on growth. In: C. D. Somebody & E. F. Someother (Eds.), Light and growth (pp. 209-291). London: Light Press.
5. Journal article: Nobody, A. B. (1991). The effect of light on growth. Title of Journal, 3(1), 15-20. doi: insert DOI when is available.
5. Manuscripts accepted for publication but not yet published: Nobody, A. B. (In press). The name of the journal where the paper was accepted must be indicated.
• Please refer to the 6th Edition of APA Formatting and Style Guide for more examples of cited literature.

Tables ...................... TOP

• Continue page number sequence.
• Each table must start on a separate page and must be double-spaced. Tables can be printed landscape or portrait. Do not reduce type size of tables. If necessary, continue table on additional pages.
• Portrait tables can be prepared to be printed 1- or 2-column width; plan accordingly.
• The title of the table should be flushed left, preceded on the same line by the word “Table” with an arabic numeral.
• Items on each row must be separated by a single tab.
• Superscripts referring to footnotes should be lowercase letters, not numbers.
• Footnotes should be placed as separate paragraphs at end of table.
• References cited in tables must be included in the Literature Cited.

Figure Legends ...................... TOP

• Begin a new page; continue page number sequence.
• All figures (maps, photos, line illustrations) should be in a single sequence, consecutively numbered. Tables are in a separate, consecutively numbered sequence.
• Double-space the legends and group them according to figure arrangements. Do not use a separate page for each group.
• Number figures consecutively with arabic numerals.
• Type legends in paragraph format, e.g.: Figure 1. Pleurothallis inedita A. Habitat. B. Flower. C. Flower dissection. D. Outer floral bract. E. Inner floral bract. F. Petal. G. Column, profile view (left) and 3/4 dorsal view (right). H. Pollinarium. (Drawn from the holotype). Illustration by Who Nobody. Figure 3. Luisia inedita. A. Habit. B. Fruit (Somebody 567, CR). Illustration by Who Nobody. Note that labels on figure (“A”) should be in upper case and match that on legend. Italicize collector’s name and number.
• The specimen(s) on which the illustrations are based must be noted.
• The author(s) of the illustration must be credited in the figure legend.
• Do not include non-alphanumeric symbols (lines, dots, stars, etc.) in legends; label them on the figure itself or refer to them by name in the legend.

Preparation and Submission of Illustrations ...................... TOP

• Illustrations should be submitted digitally as TIF files (or, exceptionally, in any format that is Adobe Photoshop compatible). Do not submit original artworks. Illustrations in “native application” file formats (e.g., PageMaker, Quark, Excel, Word, WordPerfect, etc.) will not be accepted. Photographs should be scanned at a resolution of 600 dpi; line art, 600 to 1200 dpi. All digital illustrations must be complete, with letters, scale bars, and any other labeling; label figures by press-on letters or symbols or by other mechanical lettering process; labels produced on a typewriter, dot matrix, or inkjet are unacceptable. No modifications of incomplete illustrations are provided by the editorial staff; reproduction is virtually identical to what is submitted; illustrations will not be enhanced by the editorial staff.
• Parts of a plate are labeled A, B, C, etc. Letters will be black on a white or light background; white on dark background. They are not placed over a rectangular, contrasting background, but directely on the photograph or the drawing itself, without any frame.
• All original artwork from which digital illustrations are derived MUST be signed; unsigned digital illustrations will not be accepted. The artist must also be cited in the Acknowledgments.
• For all illustrations, halftones/black-and-white photographs, the electronic files print size should be as close as possible to final published size. Print size may be reduced without loss of quality, but small files cannot be altered to fit larger dimensions.
• Length of an illustration or plate as published is 8" (205 mm). Allow space in that 8" for the printed caption to appear below the figure.
•Two widths are possible as published: 1-column is 2.8” (71 mm); full page is 5.75”(146 mm). Final resolution of all the images can not be less than 300dpi.
• Do not combine photographs and line art.
• When preparing composite illustrations, do not space between the components. Place numbers and/or letters on the illustration itself, not in the margins.
• Magnifications must be indicated by means of scale bars placed directly on the illustrations. Magnifications in the figure legend are not acceptable, and such figures will be returned to the author for scale bars.
• Maps should have a border, an indication of latitude and longitude, and should not have an undue amount of unused area. Distributions of several species with non-overlapping ranges can be placed on one map by using different symbols.
• Illustrations of a new species should show clearly the characteristics that distinguish it.

Conditions for Publication ...................... TOP

• Authors are not requested to pay page charges.
• In consideration of the publication of the article, authors grant to Jardín Botánico Lankester, Universidad de Costa Rica, all rights in the article.
• Authors warrant that their contribution is an original work not published elsewhere in whole or in part, except in abstract form, and that the article contains no matter which invades the right of privacy or which infringes any proprietary right.
• Authors will receive no royalty or other monetary compensation for the assignment set forth in this agreement.
• Jardín Botánico Lankester, Universidad de Costa Rica, in turn, grants to authors the royalty free right of re-publication in any book of which they are the authors or editors, subject to theexpress condition that lawful notice of claim of copyright be given.

What to Submit ...................... TOP

• A working version of the manuscript, including text and low resolution images (210 dpi JPEGs) must be submitted by e-mail to the Editors at:,, melissa. and, pending the submission of a e-link for high-resolution images downloading (i.e., Dropbox or WeTransfer links), or submission of a CD or DVD via regular mail (see address above).
• CD or DVD must be Macinthosh and PC compatible, and must include two copies of manuscript and two copies of illustrations. Priority mail from abroad usually comes to Lankester Botanical Garden within 10 days since sent.
• Please double check in your computer the CD or DVD is readable.
• Do not submit diskettes (floppy disks).
• Include in the package a letter with any special instructions, any change of address during the next several months, any phone, fax, e-mail numbers for the corresponding author. Indicate which author of a multiauthored paper (if not the first) should receive the proofs.
• Immediately notify the Editor-in-chief (, the Associate editors (, or the Editorial Assitant ( by e-mail after sending your package.

When to Submit ...................... TOP

• The deadlines to receive manuscripts to be included in the three yearly issues of LANKESTERIANA (April, August, and December) are January 1, May 1 and September 1, respectively. Pending the judgment of reviewers and the time to correspond with authors, the editorial staff of LANKESTERIANA is committed to reduce to a minimum the time for articles publication.

Submit to:

Diego Bogarín
Editor-in-Chief, LANKESTERIANA
Jardín Botánico Lankester
P.O. Box 302-7050 Cartago
Costa Rica
Phone number (+506) 2511-7949 , 2511-7931

Franco Pupulin
Associate Editor, LANKESTERIANA
Jardín Botánico Lankester
P.O. Box 302-7050 Cartago
Costa Rica

Melissa Díaz Morales
Associate Editor, LANKESTERIANA
Jardín Botánico Lankester
P.O. Box 302-7050 Cartago
Costa Rica

Noelia Belfort Oconitrillo
Editorial Assistant, LANKESTERIANA
Jardín Botánico Lankester
P.O. Box 302-7050 Cartago
Costa Rica


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